Websites:, By: Mohammad Yusef Kiani: list of Iranian Caravanserai along Khorasan road, Reprinted from:
Traditions Architecturales en Iran, Tehran, No. 2 & 3, 1976 :  definition: Caravansary Old World Trade Routes (OWTRAD) Project, By Dr T. Matthew Ciolek

•UNESCO, Roads of Dialogue,

•Inventory on caravanserai:

•UNESCO website on Caravanserai,

•UNESCO website on Caravanserai:

•UNESCO website on Silk road network:

•UNESCO, Integral Study of the Silk Roads, Roads of Dialogue, Project, 1988-1997, various


•"Islamic Art and Architecture, Form, function and meaning", Edinburgh University Press, chapter VI, pp. 331-376, by Robert Hillenbrand

•"The Art and Architecture of Islam 1250-1800", 1995, by Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

  1.    "Caravansary", 1990, by Mohammad-Yusef Kiani and Wolfram Kleiss. In:  "Encyclopaedia Iranica", Vol. IV, Ehsan Yarshater (ed). 1990, London and New York, pp. 798-802, by Routledge and Paul Kegan

•"Trade and Travel: Markets and Caravanserais", 1978, by Eleanor Sims. In "Architecture of the Islamic World - Its History and Social Meaning", (ed). 1978, London: Thames and Hudson Ltd, pp. 80-111, by George  Michell

•"Housing the Stranger in the Mediterranean World. Lodging, Trade, and Travel in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages", 2003, by Olivia Remie Constable

•“Funduq, Fundaco, and Khan in the wake of Christian Commerce and Trade”, by Olivia Remie Constable, pp 145-156 from “The Crusades from the Perspective of Byzantium and the Muslim World” by Angeliki E. Laiou and Roy Parviz Mottahedeh, ref.

•"The markets in Cairo, Translation recorded from Maqrizi" (orig. Fr), 1979, French Institute of Oriental Archeology in Cairo, by A. Raymond and G. Wiet

  1.   "Caravansaries in Khorasan Road", 1976, by Mohammad-Yusef Kiani (  Reprinted from: "Traditions Architecturales en Iran", Tehran, No. 2 & 3, 1976. Kiani, Mohammad Yusef. 1976

  2.   "Caravansérails syriens du Moyen", 1939 & 1940, by Jean Sauvaget, In Ars Islamica, VI & VII

  3.   "Die Karawanserai im Vorderen Orient", 1920, Der Zirkel, Architektur Verlag (ed), by Dr. Ing. Karl Müller

  1.    “Great Journeys”, 1990, by Philip Jones Griffiths & Naomi James

•“To the Ends of the Earth, The Great Travel and Trade Routes of Human History”, 1984, by Irene M. Franck & David M. Brownstone

•See bibliography list of

•Oliver Wild, from, Research Scientist, Centre for Atmospheric Science, University of Cambridge